Chapter 24. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

  1. Robert P. Lisak MD, FAAN, FRCP Parker Webber Chair Professor Chair Neurologist-in-Chief Chief4,5,
  2. Daniel D. Truong MD, FAAN Head6,
  3. William M. Carroll MBBS, MD, FRACP, FRCP(E) Head7 and
  4. Roongroj Bhidayasiri MD, FRCP Director8,9
  1. Ho Jin Kim MD, PhD Head1 and
  2. Min Su Park MD Clinical Professor2,3

Published Online: 18 MAY 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444317008.ch24

International Neurology: A Clinical Approach

International Neurology: A Clinical Approach

How to Cite

Kim, H. J. and Park, M. S. (2009) Mixed Connective Tissue Disease, in International Neurology: A Clinical Approach (eds R. P. Lisak, D. D. Truong, W. M. Carroll and R. Bhidayasiri), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444317008.ch24

Editor Information

  1. 4

    Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA

  2. 5

    Detroit Medical Center, Harper University Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA

  3. 6

    The Parkinson and Movement Disorder Institute, Memorial Neuroscience Institute, Orange Coast Memorial Medical Center, Fountain Valley, CA, USA

  4. 7

    Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, Australia

  5. 8

    Chulalongkorn Comprehensive Movement Disorders Center, Chulalongkorn University Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand

  6. 9

    University of California at Los Angeles, School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Center for Clinical Supports and MS Clinic, Department of Neurology, Research Institute and Hospital of National Cancer Center, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-gi, Gyeonggi-do, Korea

  2. 2

    Department of Neurology, Yeungnam University School of Medicine, Taegu, Korea

  3. 3

    Research Institute and Hospital of National Cancer Center, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-su, Gyeonggi-do, Korea

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 MAY 2010
  2. Published Print: 11 SEP 2009

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405157384

Online ISBN: 9781444317008



  • mixed connective tissue disease;
  • mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) - systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), polymyositis (PM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA);
  • features of MCTD - high frequency of Raynaud's phenomenon, arthritis, swollen hands, sclerodactyly, esophageal dysfunction, pulmonary involvement, and polymyositis;
  • Raynaud's phenomenon - initial symptom;
  • cutaneous features of MCTD - swollen, sausage-like appearance of fingers, non-scarring alopecia, lupus-like rashes, heliotrope eyelids, erythematous patches, periungual telangiectasia;
  • reduced diffusion capacity - most frequent functional abnormality


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Epidemiology

  • Pathophysiology

  • Clinical features

  • Investigations and diagnosis

  • Treatment

  • Further reading