Chapter 44. Dystonia

  1. Robert P. Lisak MD, FAAN, FRCP Parker Webber Chair Professor Chair Neurologist-in-Chief Chief2,3,
  2. Daniel D. Truong MD, FAAN Head4,
  3. William M. Carroll MBBS, MD, FRACP, FRCP(E) Head5 and
  4. Roongroj Bhidayasiri MD, FRCP Director6,7
  1. Stanley Fahn MD, FAAN

Published Online: 18 MAY 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444317008.ch44

International Neurology: A Clinical Approach

International Neurology: A Clinical Approach

How to Cite

Fahn, S. (2009) Dystonia, in International Neurology: A Clinical Approach (eds R. P. Lisak, D. D. Truong, W. M. Carroll and R. Bhidayasiri), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444317008.ch44

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA

  2. 3

    Detroit Medical Center, Harper University Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA

  3. 4

    The Parkinson and Movement Disorder Institute, Memorial Neuroscience Institute, Orange Coast Memorial Medical Center, Fountain Valley, CA, USA

  4. 5

    Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, Australia

  5. 6

    Chulalongkorn Comprehensive Movement Disorders Center, Chulalongkorn University Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand

  6. 7

    University of California at Los Angeles, School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Author Information

  1. H. Houston Merritt Professor of Neurology, Department of Neurology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 MAY 2010
  2. Published Print: 11 SEP 2009

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405157384

Online ISBN: 9781444317008



  • dystonia - twisting movements sustained at peak of movement;
  • classification - age at onset, affected body distribution, and etiology;
  • genetics of dystonia - DYT label;
  • dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) - peculiar gait in childhood;
  • adult-onset focal dystonia - most common forms of dystonia;
  • secondary and heredodegenerative dystonias - drugs, toxins, trauma, neurological abnormality present;
  • prevalence, pathology, neuroimaging, and physiology


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Clinical features

  • Classification

  • Genetics

  • Oppenheim dystonia

  • Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD)

  • Adult-onset focal dystonias

  • Secondary and heredodegenerative dystonias

  • Prevalence, pathology, neuroimaging, and physiology

  • Treatment

  • Further reading