Chapter 99. Peripheral Nervous System Complications of HTLV-1 Myelopathy: HAM/TSP and Related Syndromes

  1. Robert P. Lisak MD, FAAN, FRCP Parker Webber Chair Professor Chair Neurologist-in-Chief Chief5,6,
  2. Daniel D. Truong MD, FAAN Head7,
  3. William M. Carroll MBBS, MD, FRACP, FRCP(E) Head8 and
  4. Roongroj Bhidayasiri MD, FRCP Director9,10
  1. Abelardo Araújo MD, PhD, FAAN Head Associate Professor Visiting Professor1,2,3,
  2. Marco A. Lima MD, PhD Assistant Researcher4 and
  3. Marcus Tulius T. Silva MD, PhD Neurologist Senior Researcher1

Published Online: 18 MAY 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444317008.ch99

International Neurology: A Clinical Approach

International Neurology: A Clinical Approach

How to Cite

Araújo, A., Lima, M. A. and Silva, M. T. T. (2009) Peripheral Nervous System Complications of HTLV-1 Myelopathy: HAM/TSP and Related Syndromes, in International Neurology: A Clinical Approach (eds R. P. Lisak, D. D. Truong, W. M. Carroll and R. Bhidayasiri), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444317008.ch99

Editor Information

  1. 5

    Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA

  2. 6

    Detroit Medical Center, Harper University Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA

  3. 7

    The Parkinson and Movement Disorder Institute, Memorial Neuroscience Institute, Orange Coast Memorial Medical Center, Fountain Valley, CA, USA

  4. 8

    Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, Australia

  5. 9

    Chulalongkorn Comprehensive Movement Disorders Center, Chulalongkorn University Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand

  6. 10

    University of California at Los Angeles, School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    The Clinical Research Laboratory on Neuroinfections, Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute, FIOCRUZ, Brazilian Ministry of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

  2. 2

    The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

  3. 3

    School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College, Dublin, Ireland

  4. 4

    The Reference Center on Neuroinfections and HTLV, Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute (IPEC), FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 MAY 2010
  2. Published Print: 11 SEP 2009

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405157384

Online ISBN: 9781444317008



  • peripheral neuropathies (PN) and myopathies - associated with human T-lymphotrophic virus type 1;
  • mechanism by which HTLV-1 - induces neurological diseases being unknown;
  • blood–peripheral nerve barrier - limiting entry of substances and biological agents into peripheral nerve microenvironment;
  • HTLVs, single-stranded RNA retroviruses with reverse transcriptase activity - leading to DNA transcription of virus;
  • peripheral neuropathy (PN);
  • PN associated with HTLV-1 - characterized by paresthesiae;
  • enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or particle agglutination assays - common screening tests for HTLV-1;
  • no effective treatment for HAM/TSP


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Epidemiology

  • Pathophysiology

  • Clinical features

  • Investigations

  • Treatment/management

  • Further reading