12. Frank Norris and Jack London

  1. Alfred Bendixen Professor founder Executive Director2 and
  2. James Nagel Professor Rockefeller Fellow3
  1. Jeanne Campbell Reesman Professor Director

Published Online: 16 MAR 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444319910.ch12

A Companion to the American Short Story

A Companion to the American Short Story

How to Cite

Campbell Reesman, J. (2010) Frank Norris and Jack London, in A Companion to the American Short Story (eds A. Bendixen and J. Nagel), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444319910.ch12

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Texas A&M University, USA

  2. 3

    University of Georgia, USA

Author Information

  1. University of Texas, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 16 MAR 2010
  2. Published Print: 19 FEB 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405115438

Online ISBN: 9781444319910



  • Frank Norris and Jack London;
  • Frank Norris (1870–1902) and Jack London (1876–1916) - leading proponents of “naturalism”;
  • Émile Zola and Hippolyte Taine - French originators of naturalism in mid-nineteenth-century France;
  • naturalists employing a documentary, photographic use of detail - quite different from details of realist novel;
  • story of naturalism - a French and an American one;
  • Howells, James, and Twain - last believers in possibility of objective realism in the American novel;
  • Norris's “The Monster,” disturbing story of middle-class gentility confronting with its own racism;
  • Norris's The Octopus, making an interesting comparison with London's The Call of the Wild;
  • Norris's title, translating to “Spring Fantasy,” evoking genres of the pastoral


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • References and Further Reading