Chapter 1. Historical Perspective

  1. Navin C. Nanda MD, FACC, FAHA Professor of Medicine Director1,2,
  2. Ming Chon Hsiung MD Physician Associate Researcher3,4,
  3. Andrew P. Miller MD, FACC, FAHA Assistant Professor of Medicine5,6 and
  4. Fadi G. Hage MD Assistant Professor6,7

Published Online: 14 MAY 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444320305.ch1

Live/Real Time 3D Echocardiography

Live/Real Time 3D Echocardiography

How to Cite

Nanda, N. C., Hsiung, M. C., Miller, A. P. and Hage, F. G. (2010) Historical Perspective, in Live/Real Time 3D Echocardiography, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444320305.ch1

Author Information

  1. 1

    Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Heart Station/Echocardiography Laboratories University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA

  2. 2

    Echocardiography Laboratory, The Kirklin Clinic, University of Alabama Health Services Foundation Birmingham, AL, USA

  3. 3

    Division of Cardiology, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

  4. 4

    Department of Medical Research and Education, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

  5. 5

    CardioVascular Associates, PC, Birmingham, AL, USA

  6. 6

    Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA

  7. 7

    Section of Cardiology, Birmingham Veteran's Administration Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 14 MAY 2010
  2. Published Print: 2 JUL 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405161411

Online ISBN: 9781444320305



  • live/real time 3D echocardiography;
  • echocardiography history - successful advancements in technology for imaging the heart;
  • real time 3D transthoracic echocardiography (3DTTE);
  • 2DTTE revolutionizing noninvasive imaging and clinical practice limitations;
  • field of 3D echocardiography and TEE with superior 2D image quality;
  • multiplanar transesophageal probe;
  • artifact problem and live/real time 3DTTE and 3DTEE imaging;
  • transesophageal 3D reconstruction of stenotic aortic valve (AV);
  • techniques to “slice” obtaining 2D sections from 3D-reconstructed images;
  • probe for 3D transesophageal echocardiographic (3DTEE) reconstruction


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • References