Chapter 2. 3D Echocardiographic Technology

  1. Navin C. Nanda MD, FACC, FAHA Professor of Medicine Director1,2,
  2. Ming Chon Hsiung MD Physician Associate Researcher3,4,
  3. Andrew P. Miller MD, FACC, FAHA Assistant Professor of Medicine5,6 and
  4. Fadi G. Hage MD Assistant Professor6,7

Published Online: 14 MAY 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444320305.ch2

Live/Real Time 3D Echocardiography

Live/Real Time 3D Echocardiography

How to Cite

Nanda, N. C., Hsiung, M. C., Miller, A. P. and Hage, F. G. (2010) 3D Echocardiographic Technology, in Live/Real Time 3D Echocardiography, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444320305.ch2

Author Information

  1. 1

    Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Heart Station/Echocardiography Laboratories University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA

  2. 2

    Echocardiography Laboratory, The Kirklin Clinic, University of Alabama Health Services Foundation Birmingham, AL, USA

  3. 3

    Division of Cardiology, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

  4. 4

    Department of Medical Research and Education, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

  5. 5

    CardioVascular Associates, PC, Birmingham, AL, USA

  6. 6

    Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA

  7. 7

    Section of Cardiology, Birmingham Veteran's Administration Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 14 MAY 2010
  2. Published Print: 2 JUL 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405161411

Online ISBN: 9781444320305



  • 3D echocardiographic technology;
  • echocardiography, commonly requested imaging for study of the heart;
  • current state-of-the-art technology in 3D echocardiography - and transducer design, beamforming, display and quantification;
  • ultrasound transducer - keeping echo unique in imaging technology;
  • scanning electron micrograph of fully sampled 2D matrix array - for 3D beam steering;
  • beamforming in three spatial dimensions;
  • pyramidal 3D beamforming - scanning simultaneous planes in process, biand triplane imaging;
  • receive parallelism, a beamforming technique;
  • 3D dataset of “bricks” of pixels - volume elements or “voxels”;
  • 3D matrix TEE acquisitions of aortic (AV) and mitral valves (MV)


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Transducer design

  • Beamforming in three spatial dimensions

  • Display of 3D information

  • Quantification in 3D

  • What to use when

  • Acknowledgments

  • References