8. Myelodysplastic Syndromes

  1. Stefan Faderl MD Associate Professor and
  2. Hagop Kantarjian MD Chairman Professor
  1. William Stevenson MBBS, PhD1 and
  2. Guillermo Garcia-Manero MD Associate Professor Chief2

Published Online: 4 JAN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444327359.ch8

Leukemias: Principles and Practice of Therapy

Leukemias: Principles and Practice of Therapy

How to Cite

Stevenson, W. and Garcia-Manero, G. (2010) Myelodysplastic Syndromes, in Leukemias: Principles and Practice of Therapy (eds S. Faderl and H. Kantarjian), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444327359.ch8

Editor Information

  1. Department of Leukemia, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Hematologist, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sidney, Australia

  2. 2

    Section of Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Department of Leukemia, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 JAN 2011
  2. Published Print: 26 NOV 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405182355

Online ISBN: 9781444327359

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Keywords:

  • myelodysplastic syndromes;
  • anemia;
  • thrombocytopenia;
  • neutropenia;
  • cytogenetics;
  • chromosomal alterations;
  • World Health Organization (WHO) classification;
  • International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score;
  • lenalidomide;
  • 5-azacitine;
  • decitabine;
  • DNA methylation;
  • histones

Summary

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) refer to a group of hematopoietic disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and an increased risk of transformation to acute myelogenous leukemia. The median age of patients with MDS is 70–75 years, and it is likely that environmental factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. MDS is classified according to the WHO criteria, and a number of prognostic scores are in place to predict the natural history of patients affected by these disorders. Cytogenetic alterations, in particular affecting chromosome 5 and 7 are frequent in MDS and predict for distinct prognoses. Over the last decade, we have witnessed significant improvement in supportive care and therapeutic modalities for patients with MDS. These include growth factors, immune modulatory agents, such as lenalidomide, and hypomethylating agents including 5-azacitidine and decitabine. In this chapter, we summarize recent advances in our knowledge of MDS.