Chapter 16. Getting into Hot Water? Atlantic Salmon Responses to Climate Change in Freshwater and Marine Environments

  1. Øystein Aas Professor Senior Research Scientist5,6,7,
  2. Sigurd Einum Professor8,
  3. Anders Klemetsen Professor Emeritus7 and
  4. Jostein Skurdal Professor Research Director9,10
  1. Christopher D. Todd1,
  2. Kevin D. Friedland2,
  3. Julian C. MacLean3,
  4. Neil Hazon1 and
  5. Arne J. Jensen4

Published Online: 1 SEP 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444327755.ch16

Atlantic Salmon Ecology

Atlantic Salmon Ecology

How to Cite

Todd, C. D., Friedland, K. D., MacLean, J. C., Hazon, N. and Jensen, A. J. (2010) Getting into Hot Water? Atlantic Salmon Responses to Climate Change in Freshwater and Marine Environments, in Atlantic Salmon Ecology (eds Ø. Aas, S. Einum, A. Klemetsen and J. Skurdal), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444327755.ch16

Editor Information

  1. 5

    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Fakkelgarden, N-2624 Lillehammer, Norway

  2. 6

    Department Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, N-1432 Ås, Norway

  3. 7

    Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway

  4. 8

    Centre for Conservation Biology, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway

  5. 9

    Oslo University College, N-0130 Oslo, Norway

  6. 10

    The Research Council of Norway, Division for Strategic Priorities, N-0131 Oslo, Norway

Author Information

  1. 1

    Scottish Oceans Institute, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife, KY16 8LB, Scotland, UK

  2. 2

    National Marine Fisheries Service, 28 Tarzwell Dr., Narragansett, RI 02882, USA

  3. 3

    Fisheries Research Services, Freshwater Laboratory Field Station, Inchbraoch House, South Quay, Ferryden, Montrose, Scotland DD10 9SL, UK

  4. 4

    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), PO Box 5685 Sluppen N - 7485 Trondheim, Norway

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 SEP 2010
  2. Published Print: 1 OCT 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405197694

Online ISBN: 9781444327755



  • getting into hot water - Atlantic salmon responses to climate change in freshwater and marine environments;
  • upstream river migration and spawning;
  • river flow, most frequently reported factor - controlling upstream migration rates;
  • fry emergence time, set by spawning date and temperature - rate of embryo and alevin development;
  • intense abiotic disturbances - cascading, catastrophic consequences for multiple year-classes of juveniles;
  • smoltification, size-related, endocrine-controlled developmental event - physiologically pre-adapting salmon for migration to sea water;
  • geographical distribution and recent trends - in adult stock abundance;
  • migration, diurnal behaviour and changes - in epipelagic food web;
  • abiotic and biotic factors influencing - post-smolt marine growth and survivorship;
  • NAO, measure of atmospheric pressure gradient - Iceland and Portugal (Hurrell's index) or Azores (Rogers' index)


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Past and present climate for Atlantic salmon

  • Upstream river migration and spawning

  • Eggs and alevins

  • Parr life

  • Smolt migration

  • Geographical distribution and recent trends in adult stock abundance

  • Ocean climate influences on run-timing and adult abundance/recruitment

  • Migration, diurnal behaviour and changes in the epipelagic food web

  • Do changes in North Atlantic zooplankton communities comprise regime shifts

  • Change in size and growth in the marine environment

  • Adult somatic condition and lipid reserves: indicators of ocean climate deterioration?

  • Maturity schedules

  • Large-scale indicator indices of ocean climate change and impacts on salmon

  • Management issues and responses to changes in ocean climate

  • References