6. Pregnancy and Lactation

  1. Dr Susan A Lanham-New2,
  2. Professor Ian A Macdonald3 and
  3. Associate Professor Helen M Roche4
  1. Dr Joop Ma van Raaij and
  2. Dr Lisette CPGM de Groot

Published Online: 16 MAR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444327779.ch6

Nutrition and Metabolism, Second Edition

Nutrition and Metabolism, Second Edition

How to Cite

van Raaij, J. M. and de Groot, L. C. (2010) Pregnancy and Lactation, in Nutrition and Metabolism, Second Edition (eds S. A. Lanham-New, I. A. Macdonald and H. M. Roche), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444327779.ch6

Editor Information

  1. 2

    University of Surrey, UK

  2. 3

    University of Nottingham, UK

  3. 4

    University College Dublin, Ireland

Author Information

  1. Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 16 MAR 2011
  2. Published Print: 19 NOV 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405168083

Online ISBN: 9781444327779



  • pregnancy and lactation;
  • single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) - in DHA biosynthesis pathways;
  • nutrition, before and during pregnancy - lactation, effects on short- and long-term health of mothers and children;
  • principles for estimating - nutritional needs in pregnancy;
  • energy needs, in maintaining new metabolism;
  • estimate energy and nutrient needs - in pregnancy, ‘factorial approach’ used;
  • active forms of vitamin D - crossing placenta, role in calcium metabolism in foetus;
  • selected immunological factors - in human phases of lactation;
  • lactation - colostrum, transitional and mature milk;
  • maternal caloric restriction and exercise - during lactation


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Pregnancy

  • Lactation

  • Perspectives on the future

  • References

  • Further reading