12. The Heterological Thinkers

  1. M. A. R. Habib

Published Online: 24 FEB 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781444328004.ch12

Literary Criticism from Plato to the Present: An Introduction

Literary Criticism from Plato to the Present: An Introduction

How to Cite

Habib, M. A. R. (2010) The Heterological Thinkers, in Literary Criticism from Plato to the Present: An Introduction, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444328004.ch12

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 24 FEB 2012
  2. Published Print: 7 JAN 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405160346

Online ISBN: 9781444328004



  • heterological thinkers;
  • main streams of modern European and American thought - as rationalism, empiricism, utilitarianism, and pragmatism;
  • Hegel's philosophy, amalgamating entire thrust of modern bourgeois thought - from Descartes and Hobbes through the Enlightenment to Kant;
  • “heterological” or alternative tradition - initiated by Schopenhauer;
  • Arthur Schopenhauer, a widely read philosopher in Germany today;
  • Friedrich Nietzsche, associated - with announcement that “God is dead”;
  • Nietzsche's thought, stressing the Dionysian side of human nature - fueled by unconscious impulses and excess;
  • text of Nietzsche's, bearing on literature and criticism - The Birth of Tragedy (1870–1871);
  • Bergson's philosophy, influencing modernist writers - as Proust, T. S. Eliot and Virginia Woolf;
  • Bergson's notion of duree - emphasis on human personality as locus of the primary reality


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Arthur Schopenhauer (1788–1860)

  • Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900)

  • Henri Bergson (1859–1941)

  • Matthew Arnold (1822–1888)