Chapter 3. Use of Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis

  1. Nils Erik Gilhus MD, PhD Professor10,
  2. Michael P. Barnes MD, FRCP Professor of Neurological Rehabilitation Medical Director11 and
  3. Michael Brainin MD Professor12
  1. M. Filippi1,
  2. M. A. Rocca1,
  3. D. L. Arnold2,
  4. R. Bakshi3,
  5. F. Barkhof4,
  6. N. De Stefano5,
  7. F. Fazekas6,
  8. E. Frohman7,
  9. D. H. Miller8 and
  10. J. S. Wolinsky9

Published Online: 6 SEP 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444328394.ch3

European Handbook of Neurological Management, Second Edition, Volume 1, Second Edition

European Handbook of Neurological Management, Second Edition, Volume 1, Second Edition

How to Cite

Gilhus, N. E., Barnes, M. P. and Brainin, M. (2010) Use of Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis, in European Handbook of Neurological Management, Second Edition, Volume 1, Second Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444328394.ch3

Author Information

  1. 10

    Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen and Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway

  2. 11

    University of Newcastle, Hunters Moor Neurorehabilitation Ltd, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

  3. 12

    Department of Clinical Medicine and Prevention, and Center for Clinical Neurosciences, Donau-Universität Krems, Department of Neurology, Landesklinikum Donauregion Tulln Tulln, Austria

Author Information

  1. 1

    Institute of Experimental Neurology, Scientific Institute and University Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy

  2. 2

    Montreal Neurological Institute, Canada

  3. 3

    Partners MS Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

  4. 4

    VU Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

  5. 5

    Institute of Neurological Sciences, University of Siena, Italy

  6. 6

    Medical University, Graz, Austria

  7. 7

    University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, USA

  8. 8

    Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK

  9. 9

    University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 6 SEP 2010
  2. Published Print: 15 OCT 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405185332

Online ISBN: 9781444328394



  • use of imaging in multiple sclerosis;
  • conventional magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) - proven to be sensitive for detecting multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions and their changes over time;
  • European Federation of Neurological Society (EFNS) task force;
  • Conventional MRI, cMRI sequences - used for studying MS patients, dual-echo and post-contrast T1-weighted scan;
  • diagnostic evaluation of patients, suspected of having MS - characterization of lesions profiles suggestive of disease;
  • individuals without overt clinical symptoms - but with MRI features, suggestive of MS, defined ‘ radiologically isolated syndromes’ (RIS);
  • non-conventional MRI-(1) MT-MRI - reduced MT ratio (MTR) values;
  • functional MRI, fMRI - abnormal pattern of movement - cortical activation in CIS patients within 3 months of disease onset;
  • MRI in patients with CDMS;
  • rigorous and valid strategy for MR-based longitudinal monitoring of MS - use of standardized imaging protocols


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Aim of the European Federation of Neurological Society (EFNS) task force

  • MRI assessment of patients at presentation with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of MS

  • MRI in patients with CDMS

  • References