Chapter 4. Neurophysiological Tests and Neuroimaging Procedures in Non-Acute Headache

  1. Nils Erik Gilhus MD, PhD Professor12,
  2. Michael P. Barnes MD, FRCP Professor of Neurological Rehabilitation Medical Director13 and
  3. Michael Brainin MD Professor14
  1. G. Sandrini1,
  2. L. Friberg2,
  3. G. Coppola3,
  4. W. Jänig4,
  5. R. Jensen5,
  6. M. Kruit6,
  7. P. Rossi7,
  8. D. Russell8,
  9. M. Sanchez del Rìo9,
  10. T. Sand10 and
  11. J. Schoenen11

Published Online: 6 SEP 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9781444328394.ch4

European Handbook of Neurological Management, Second Edition, Volume 1, Second Edition

European Handbook of Neurological Management, Second Edition, Volume 1, Second Edition

How to Cite

Gilhus, N. E., Barnes, M. P. and Brainin, M. (2010) Neurophysiological Tests and Neuroimaging Procedures in Non-Acute Headache, in European Handbook of Neurological Management, Second Edition, Volume 1, Second Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444328394.ch4

Author Information

  1. 12

    Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen and Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway

  2. 13

    University of Newcastle, Hunters Moor Neurorehabilitation Ltd, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

  3. 14

    Department of Clinical Medicine and Prevention, and Center for Clinical Neurosciences, Donau-Universität Krems, Department of Neurology, Landesklinikum Donauregion Tulln Tulln, Austria

Author Information

  1. 1

    IRCCS C. Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy

  2. 2

    Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

  3. 3

    G.B. Bietti Eye Foundation IRCCS, Rome, Italy

  4. 4

    Physiologisches Institut, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel, Germany

  5. 5

    Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Denmark

  6. 6

    Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands

  7. 7

    INI Grottaferrata, UCADH, Pavia - Roma, Italy

  8. 8

    Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway

  9. 9

    Hospital Ruber Internacional, Madrid, Spain

  10. 10

    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

  11. 11

    CHR Citadelle, Liege, Belgium

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 6 SEP 2010
  2. Published Print: 15 OCT 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405185332

Online ISBN: 9781444328394



  • neurophysiological tests and neuroimaging procedures - in non-acute headache;
  • important tools in diagnosis and treatment of headache disorders - careful clinical neurological examinations and reports on patient's history and symptoms;
  • Evoked potentials (EPs), cortical EEG potentials - temporally linked to specific sensory input;
  • evidence suggesting nociceptive blink reflex (nBR) - useful tool for evidencing sensitization phenomena induced by nitroglycerin;
  • nociceptive flexion reflexes (NFRs), useful tool - for exploring pain control system in human beings;
  • autonomic nervous system (ANS), three parts - sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric nervous systems;
  • clinical tests in headache - central sensitization, important role in maintenance and exacerbation of acute migraine headache attack;
  • single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) - nuclear medicine imaging methods;
  • investigating IDAP slopes and visual evoked potential (VEP) habituation - in pairs of migraineur parents and their offspring;
  • majority of guideline - physicians with a correct perception (EFNS guidelines), usefulness of neurophysiological tests for diagnosing migraine


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Aims and methods

  • Main findings for the different techniques

  • Appendix

  • References