7. Mutualisms

  1. Peter J. Morin

Published Online: 17 JUL 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444341966.ch7

Community Ecology, 2nd Edition

Community Ecology, 2nd Edition

How to Cite

Morin, P. J. (2011) Mutualisms, in Community Ecology, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444341966.ch7

Author Information

  1. Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Natural Resources, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 17 JUL 2011
  2. Published Print: 19 JUL 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781444338218

Online ISBN: 9781444341966



  • mutualisms;
  • elementary interactions between species - positive interactions, commensalisms and beneficial associations;
  • kinds of mutualisms, negative ways - as competitors, or predators and prey;
  • Boucher et al, that mutualisms - energetic, nutritional, protective and transport associations;
  • population trajectories, mutualistic species pair – facultative or obligate;
  • mutualisms, pollination and seed dispersal - plant gamete transport by animals;
  • plant–pollinator interactions, not as highly species-specific - as Yucca–Tegeticula system;
  • energetic and nutritional mutualisms - associations, organisms in different phyla;
  • associational defenses, frequency - neighborhood habitat amelioration, lower with stress levels;
  • obligate mutualisms, and constraints - ways, species colonize communities


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Overview

  • Kinds of mutualisms

  • Direct and indirect mutualisms

  • Simple models of mutualistic interactions

  • Examples of obligate mutualisms

  • Energetic and nutritional mutualisms

  • Examples of facultative mutualisms and commensalisms

  • Theories about the conditions leading to positive interactions among species

  • Integrating positive interactions into ecological networks

  • Conclusions: Consequences of mutualism and commensalism for community development