3. Learned Defences and Counterdefences in Predator–Prey Interactions

  1. Culum Brown3,
  2. Kevin Laland4 and
  3. Jens Krause5,6
  1. Jennifer L. Kelley1 and
  2. Anne E. Magurran2

Published Online: 5 JUL 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444342536.ch3

Fish Cognition and Behavior

Fish Cognition and Behavior

How to Cite

Kelley, J. L. and Magurran, A. E. (2011) Learned Defences and Counterdefences in Predator–Prey Interactions, in Fish Cognition and Behavior (eds C. Brown, K. Laland and J. Krause), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444342536.ch3

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney 2109, Australia

  2. 4

    Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9TS, Scotland, UK

  3. 5

    Department of Biology and Ecology of Fishes, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany

  4. 6

    Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany

Author Information

  1. 1

    Centre for Evolutionary Biology, School of Animal Biology, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia

  2. 2

    Gatty Marine Laboratory, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 8LB, Scotland, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 5 JUL 2011
  2. Published Print: 29 JUL 2011

Book Series:

  1. Fish and Aquatic Resources Series

Book Series Editors:

  1. Tony J. Pitcher

Series Editor Information

  1. Fisheries Centre, Aquatic Ecosystems Research Laboratory, University of British Columbia, Canada

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781444332216

Online ISBN: 9781444342536



  • learned defences and counterdefences - in predator–prey interactions;
  • living with predators, an unavoidable aspect of life - for all fishes;
  • predation risk, highly variable - in predator–prey interaction;
  • predator–prey interactions - adaptations of prey, defence against predators;
  • stages of predation sequence – learning, by both predators and prey;
  • opportunities for learning - one of the five stages of predation sequence;
  • learning specificity, prey fishes - associating predatory cues, increased risk;
  • Batesian mimicry, palatable prey - mimic and model species, with unpalatability;
  • predator–prey interactions, learning about predators - not a life-or-death experience;
  • selection experiments, disentangling evolutionary processes - predator–prey learning


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • The predator–prey sequence

  • Summary and discussion

  • Acknowledgements

  • References