112. Vascular Malformations

  1. Alan D. Irvine MD, FRCPI, FRCP5,6,
  2. Peter H. Hoeger MD7,8 and
  3. Albert C. Yan MD, FAAP, FAAD9,10
  1. Laurence M. Boon MD, PhD1,
  2. Odile Enjolras MD2,
  3. John B. Mulliken MD3 and
  4. Miikka Vikkula MD, PhD4

Published Online: 24 MAY 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444345384.ch112

Harper's Textbook of Pediatric Dermatology, Volume 1, 2, Third Edition

Harper's Textbook of Pediatric Dermatology, Volume 1, 2, Third Edition

How to Cite

Boon, L. M., Enjolras, O., Mulliken, J. B. and Vikkula, M. (2011) Vascular Malformations, in Harper's Textbook of Pediatric Dermatology, Volume 1, 2, Third Edition (eds A. D. Irvine, P. H. Hoeger and A. C. Yan), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444345384.ch112

Editor Information

  1. 5

    Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland

  2. 6

    Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

  3. 7

    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

  4. 8

    Catholic Children's Hospital Wilhelmstift, Hamburg, Germany

  5. 9

    University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA

  6. 10

    The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Center for Vascular Anomalies Program, Division of Plastic Surgery, Clinique Universitaire St Luc and Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium

  2. 2

    Centre de Référence des, Pathologies Neurovasculaires Malformatives, Site Hôpital d'Enfants AP-HP Armand Trousseau, Département de Chirurgie Maxillofaciale et de, Chirurgie Plastique Pédiatriques, Paris, France

  3. 3

    Harvard Medical School and Vascular Anomalies Center, Department of Plastic and Oral Surgery, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

  4. 4

    Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics, de Duve Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 24 MAY 2011
  2. Published Print: 3 JUN 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405176958

Online ISBN: 9781444345384



  • arteriovenous malformation;
  • capillary malformation;
  • diagnosis;
  • genetic;
  • lymphatic malformation;
  • syndrome;
  • treatment;
  • vascular anomalies;
  • venous malformation


Vascular anomalies affect about 0.3% of the population and are divided into two major categories: vascular tumours (with cellular proliferation, haemangioma being the most common) and vascular malformations (structural anomalies of blood vessels) that are subsequently subdivided depending on the affected vessel type into arterial, capillary, lymphatic or venous malformations. Vascular malformations mostly affect only one vessel type, yet combined malformations also exist. Most vascular malformations are sporadic, although several families with inherited forms have been identified. They grow proportionally with the patient and do not regress. Most frequently, they are well demarcated and localized. In rare instances, they can be the stigmata of deep lesions. Doppler ultrasound is the best non-invasive radiological examination that provides clues to the differentiation of the various types. Magnetic resonance imaging details the extension and precise location of the lesion. Treatment of vascular malformations depends on the affected vessel type, the location of the lesion and the symptoms. As many lesions are extensive, patients should be aware that a complete cure is often not possible. Treatments are difficult and can have severe complications. Extensive and/or complex lesions should always be taken care of by a multidisciplinary team.