73. Other Noxious and Venomous Creatures

  1. Alan D. Irvine MD, FRCPI, FRCP2,3,
  2. Peter H. Hoeger MD4,5 and
  3. Albert C. Yan MD, FAAP, FAAD6,7
  1. Dirk M. Elston MD

Published Online: 24 MAY 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444345384.ch73

Harper's Textbook of Pediatric Dermatology, Volume 1, 2, Third Edition

Harper's Textbook of Pediatric Dermatology, Volume 1, 2, Third Edition

How to Cite

Elston, D. M. (2011) Other Noxious and Venomous Creatures, in Harper's Textbook of Pediatric Dermatology, Volume 1, 2, Third Edition (eds A. D. Irvine, P. H. Hoeger and A. C. Yan), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444345384.ch73

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland

  2. 3

    Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland

  3. 4

    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

  4. 5

    Catholic Children's Hospital Wilhelmstift, Hamburg, Germany

  5. 6

    University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA

  6. 7

    The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Author Information

  1. Department of Dermatology Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 24 MAY 2011
  2. Published Print: 3 JUN 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405176958

Online ISBN: 9781444345384



  • anaphylaxis;
  • bite;
  • centipede;
  • hymenoptera;
  • jellyfish;
  • Latrodectus;
  • Loxosceles;
  • millipede;
  • sting;
  • venom


Most of us will experience bites and stings in the course of our lives. While most are simply a nuisance, some may be life-threatening because of the direct effect of the venom or an allergic host response. For those with severe allergy to bees, wasps or fire ants, immunotherapy can improve quality of life. Rush immunotherapy regimens are being used more commonly and oral immunization appears promising but remains controversial. Anyone with life-threatening allergy should carry an epinephrine autoinjector. Black widow bites produce acute abdominal pain and tetany, while brown recluse bites may produce localized dermonecrotic reactions. Immediate management of most marine envenomations involves removal from the water and observation for more serious side effects. Heat destroys most marine venoms. Snake bites management varies by species and patients should be taken as quickly as possible to an emergency department.