12. Tics and Tourette Syndrome

  1. Alberto Albanese MD1 and
  2. Joseph Jankovic MD2
  1. Joseph Jankovic MD

Published Online: 24 FEB 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781444346183.ch12

Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders: Differential Diagnosis and Treatment

Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders: Differential Diagnosis and Treatment

How to Cite

Jankovic, J. (2011) Tics and Tourette Syndrome, in Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders: Differential Diagnosis and Treatment (eds A. Albanese and J. Jankovic), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444346183.ch12

Editor Information

  1. 1

    Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan, Italy

  2. 2

    Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

Author Information

  1. Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 24 FEB 2012
  2. Published Print: 3 APR 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781444333527

Online ISBN: 9781444346183

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Keywords:

  • tics and TS;
  • motor and vocal/phonic tics;
  • tics, simple or complex;
  • premonitory sensations;
  • TS phenomenology;
  • defective inhibitory mechanisms;
  • TS therapy, tailored to needs;
  • CBIT disorders;
  • genetic factors

Summary

Tourette syndrome (TS), named after the French neurologist Gilles de la Tourette, is a neurologic disorder manifested by motor and phonic tics usually starting during childhood and often accompanied by obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), poor impulse control, and other comorbid behavioral problems. The cause of TS is unknown, but the disorder appears to be inherited in the majority of patients, often from both parents (bilineal transmission), but the gene or genes causing TS in majority of patients have not yet been identified. Antidopaminergic therapy and botulinum toxin injections usually control the tics; behavioral and other pharmacologic interventions are usually needed to treat the behavioral comorbidities. Deep brain stimulation should be reserved for patients whose symptoms are disabling despite optimal medical therapy.