22. Prostanoids

  1. Kenji Izuhara MD, PhD2,
  2. Stephen T. Holgate MD, DSc, FMedSci3 and
  3. Marsha Wills-Karp PhD4
  1. Sarah A. Maher PhD,
  2. Deborah L. Clarke PhD and
  3. Maria G. Belvisi PhD, FBPharmacolS

Published Online: 27 JUL 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444346688.ch22

Inflammation and Allergy Drug Design

Inflammation and Allergy Drug Design

How to Cite

Maher, S. A., Clarke, D. L. and Belvisi, M. G. (2011) Prostanoids, in Inflammation and Allergy Drug Design (eds K. Izuhara, S. T. Holgate and M. Wills-Karp), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444346688.ch22

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Division of Medical Biochemistry, Saga Medical School, Nabeshima, Saga, Japan

  2. 3

    School of Medicine, Allergy and Inflammation Research, Southampton General Hospital, University Medicine, Southampton, UK

  3. 4

    Division of Immunology, Cincinnati Children's Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA

Author Information

  1. Respiratory Pharmacology, Pharmacology and Toxicology Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 27 JUL 2011
  2. Published Print: 13 AUG 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781444330144

Online ISBN: 9781444346688



  • other mediators, contributing to pathogenesis - of allergic diseases, in respiratory tract;
  • prostanoids, identified in 1936 by Ulf von Euler - injecting semen into animals, finding that it lowered blood pressure;
  • prostanoids and their receptors - entering cell, by perturbing lipid fluidity;
  • prostanoid synthesis - prostaglandins and thromboxane, metabolism of arachidonic acid by COX-1;
  • receptors, for PGD2, PGE2, PGF, PGI2 and TXA2 - named DP, EP, FP, IP and TP;
  • PGE 2, most studied of prostanoids - with diverse physiologic effects;
  • prostanoids, and their role - in airway inflammatory diseases;
  • airway smooth muscle tone, and prostanoids - Kawakami and colleagues, that PGE 2 having a bronchodilator effect;
  • prostanoids receptors - agonist, antagonists, signaling pathways and expression;
  • airway inflammation and prostanoids - complete blockade of prostanoids, being contra-indicated


Prostanoid receptors DP1/2, EP1-4, FP, IP, and TP are G-protein-coupled receptors activated by the prostanoids prostaglandin (PG)D2, PGE2, PGF, PGI2, and TxA2, respectively. In airway inflammatory diseases, they play a role in inflammation and airway smooth muscle contraction/relaxation. Inhaled PGE2 provides a potential therapy for airway inflammatory diseases as it has been shown to be a bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory (EP2 and/or EP4), but it does cause cough as a side effect (EP3). PGD2 via the DP2 receptor mediates a range of proinflammatory effects; therefore, antagonism of the DP2 receptor provides another potential target for therapeutic intervention. In this chapter we describe the role of prostanoids and their receptors in the airways and discuss the potential for the use of prostanoid ligands as a treatment for airway inflammatory diseases.