7. Source-to-Sink Sediment Volumes within a Tectono-Stratigraphic Model for a Laramide Shelf-to-Deep-Water Basin: Methods and Results

  1. Cathy Busby2 and
  2. Antonio Azor3
  1. Cristian Carvajal and
  2. Ron Steel

Published Online: 30 JAN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781444347166.ch7

Tectonics of Sedimentary Basins: Recent Advances

Tectonics of Sedimentary Basins: Recent Advances

How to Cite

Carvajal, C. and Steel, R. (2011) Source-to-Sink Sediment Volumes within a Tectono-Stratigraphic Model for a Laramide Shelf-to-Deep-Water Basin: Methods and Results, in Tectonics of Sedimentary Basins: Recent Advances (eds C. Busby and A. Azor), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444347166.ch7

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Department of Earth Science, University of California, Santa Barbara CA 93106, USA

  2. 3

    Departamento de Geodinámica, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain

Author Information

  1. Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 JAN 2012
  2. Published Print: 30 DEC 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405194655

Online ISBN: 9781444347166

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Keywords:

  • source to sink;
  • sediment volume;
  • Laramide orogeny;
  • Washakie basin;
  • Lewis shelf margin

Summary

In the Laramide-type Washakie-Great Divide Basin, we illustrate how sediment volume partitioning integrated into basin analysis contributes to understanding the history of uplift, interpreting the stratigraphic drivers, and to producing a source-to-sink characterization. The studied Lewis-Fox Hills (Maastrichtian) source-to-sink system that filled the Laramide basin shows a two-stage evolution. In Stage 1, increasing thrust-driven uplift and crustal loading led to increased subsidence resulting in a shelf margin that was aggradational with increasing clinothem volumes and widening marine topsets, as the shelf-margin prism prograded into deepening basinal waters. In Stage 2, the shelf-edge trajectory became more progradational with decreasing clinothem volumes, wide coastal-plain topsets, and stable to decreasing clinoform heights. This is inferred to have resulted from lower accommodation and increased rates of sediment supply, as well as progradation into low-subsidence distal basin areas; thrust-driven uplift is inferred to have decreased or ceased. Average sediment supply was 4−16 × 106 ton/y, increasing from Stage 1 to 2. Yield was within 200-2000 ton/km2/y with the higher end of this range likely achieved during Stage 1. Hinterland maximum relief evolved from lowland (100-500 m), to upland (500-1000 m), and at some point in Stage 1, to mountainous (1000-3000 m) remaining in this category through Stage 2. The studied Laramide source-to-sink system was similar to some modern East Asian river systems, which at present provide some of the largest volumes of sediment to the oceans. The study case illustrates that integration of sediment volume partitioning with dynamic stratigraphic analysis is useful to build improved tectono-stratigraphic models and characterize ancient source-to-sink systems.