Standard Article

Andes, migration, 1900 to present

Migration A–Z


  1. Alex Julca

Published Online: 4 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781444351071.wbeghm027

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

How to Cite

Julca, A. 2013. Andes, migration, 1900 to present. The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration. .

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 FEB 2013


Andean migration has rarely been a one-step movement from the countryside to the city. In the Peruvian case, since the early 1900s when modernization was starting to become a new way of life, peasants who had lived on the land for centuries were first acquainted with it in the capitals of their provinces. The economic and social experiences accumulated in these nearby towns served to move further afield to places and cities where the boom in certain commodities (for example, rubber, lumber, mining) – often destined for foreign markets – lured them with the promise of jobs with higher pay and of social progress. These earlier migration processes were initially temporary, and sometimes required the “pull” of enganchadores, whose work was to go around towns recruiting workers. Economic security promised by the possibility of higher income was often enough to instigate the move. Under the latifundio system, whereby large land areas were owned by landlords who had servants to work the land, agriculture was premised on poor working and living conditions for peasants, without the possibility of social progress held out by modern urban life, including the perks of education, medicines, water, and sanitation.


  • development;
  • American borderlands;
  • labor;
  • indigenous peoples;
  • gender;
  • demography and population studies