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Baltic States, migration 20th century to present

Migration A–Z

B

  1. Aksel Kirch

Published Online: 4 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781444351071.wbeghm058

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

How to Cite

Kirch, A. 2013. Baltic States, migration 20th century to present. The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration. .

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 FEB 2013

Abstract

Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania became independent from Russia after World War I in 1918. However, the independence of the Baltic States ended when Stalin's regime occupied and annexed Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania to the USSR in 1940. After the annexation of the Baltic States States, Estonia's and Latvia's migration was no longer a naturally developing process, but it was in part forced. The most intensive immigration took place during a number of years after World War II (from 1946 to 1949). From the mid-sixties 1960s the hinterland of migration enlarged, and another reason for immigration became obvious: immigrants from Russia and other regions of the USSR looked for improved material well-being. Continuous industrialization caused an increased demand for extra labor force and that, in turn, caused the second, larger, immigration wave in the 1960s. Therefore it should be stressed that the population development has been influenced by these substantial immigration flows (Tammur 2008, 12).

Keywords:

  • assimilation and exclusion;
  • demography and population studies;
  • ethnocentrism;
  • Linguistics;
  • geopolitics