Bonded labor and migration, India
Published Online: 4 FEB 2013
Copyright © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration
How to Cite
Mohanty, M. 2013. Bonded labor and migration, India. The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration. .
- Published Online: 4 FEB 2013
Slavery is a hallmark in human history, a system in which people were sold and forced to work, and forced labor was closely associated with imperialism. In the modern era, slave migrations were a primary force in European mercantilism as tens of millions of people were captured, sold, and shipped from Africa to the Americas (Cohen 1995). Due to the vast profits in the slave trade that accrued to financial and commercial interests, it was essential to European mercantile capitalism (John 2006). The abolition of slavery by Britain in 1833, France and Denmark in 1848, and Holland in 1863 created new demands for cheap labor to support commerce and trade (Vertovec 1995), and the emancipation of African slaves in 1838 created a severe shortage of laborers working in sugar, coffee, tea, cocoa, rice, and rubber plantations (John 2006). Therefore, mercantile interests gradually replaced slavery with servitude and unfree labor. The terms “bonded labor,” “indentured servitude,” “peonage,” and “serfdom” are used synonymously but are different forms of servitude.
- labor supply;
- political economy;