Bonded labor and migration, Russia
Published Online: 4 FEB 2013
Copyright © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration
How to Cite
Gorshkov, B. B. 2013. Bonded labor and migration, Russia. The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration. .
- Published Online: 4 FEB 2013
In the context of Russian history, bonded labor refers to several types of unfree labor. These included the labor of slaves, serfs, indentured servants, laborers of state and manorial factories and mines, as well as penal and child labor, military conscription, and trafficking. All these types entailed employment against the will of the employed and sometimes their involuntary relocation. Each of these types of labor existed throughout Russia's history during certain time periods, experienced dynamics (evolution, changes, or continuity), and declined or was outlawed.
- political economy