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Crusades: Middle East migration, medieval era

Migration A–Z

C

  1. Piers D. Mitchell

Published Online: 4 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781444351071.wbeghm153

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

How to Cite

Mitchell, P. D. 2013. Crusades: Middle East migration, medieval era. The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration. .

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 FEB 2013

Abstract

The crusades were military expeditions from Europe that were bound for Christian holy sites in the eastern Mediterranean (Riley-Smith 1999; Tyerman 2004; Murray 2006). The first crusade left Europe in 1096 and captured Jerusalem in 1099. A series of Frankish states were established along the coast of the Levant, namely the kingdom of Jerusalem, the county of Tripoli, the county of Edessa, the principality of Antioch, and the kingdom of Cyprus. The last mainland city (Acre) was retaken from the Europeans by Muslim troops in 1291. Hundreds of thousands of Europeans are thought to have migrated to these Frankish states as part of military expeditions, as pilgrims, or traders. Some stayed for a year and returned to Europe, others died during their travels, and yet others decided to settle in the east. Modern study of these migrations helps us to understand who chose to settle in the east, how the Frankish states in the east may have differed from European states and the social and health consequences of these migrations (Mitchell and Millard, in press).

Keywords:

  • faith;
  • foreign interventionism;
  • imperialism;
  • empire;
  • war;
  • repression