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Freedom of movement

Migration A–Z


  1. Antoine Pécoud

Published Online: 4 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781444351071.wbeghm241

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

How to Cite

Pécoud, A. 2013. Freedom of movement. The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration. .

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 FEB 2013


Freedom of movement refers to the right of people to circulate without restrictions across the surface of the world. This may concern either internal or international mobility. In the first case, the issue is whether states allow their citizens to move freely throughout their territory. The second case derives from the Westphalian organization of the world into separate nation-states, which raises the question of the rights and duties of states toward noncitizens and, correspondingly, of the rights and entitlements of human beings who wish or happen to be outside their state. Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) addresses both internal and international mobility and states that: (1) “Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state” and (2) “Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.”


  • cultural diversity;
  • cross-cultural;
  • Geneva Conventions;
  • international agencies;
  • International Law;
  • labor;
  • poverty