Standard Article

Imprisonment and punishment

Migration A–Z


  1. Lanre Olusegun Ikuteyijo

Published Online: 4 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781444351071.wbeghm284

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

How to Cite

Ikuteyijo, L. O. 2013. Imprisonment and punishment. The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration. .

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 FEB 2013


Migration has been traditionally defined as the movement of people from one geographical location to another. However, there have been various modifications to this definition over the years, but the standard definition is the one given by The Hague Process which defines a migrant as someone who is undergoing a semi or permanent change in residence, which involves a change in his/her social, economic and/or cultural environment. Migration or mobility is an integral part of human nature. People have moved for various reasons over the years, and people will continue to move as long as man exists. Scholars have come up with various reasons for human movements which could be reduced to two broad concepts; push and pull factors. The pull factors include forces which attract the individual to certain places and these could include employment, economic prosperity, human security, and others too numerous to mention. On the other hand, push factors in migration include unfavorable forces that tend to repel people from a particular place and these could include inclement weather, conflict, insecurity, unemployment, among other factors. Another way of delineating migration is in terms of the willingness or otherwise of the individual in embarking on the voyage. In that case, we talk about voluntary and involuntary migration. While voluntary migration depicts a situation whereby the individual leaves the place of origin willingly, involuntary migration depicts a situation whereby the individual's movement involves one form of coercion or another.


  • colonialism;
  • criminal justice;
  • ethnic cleansing;
  • violence