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Pakistan, migration 1970s to present

Migration A–Z


  1. Farooq Azam

Published Online: 4 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781444351071.wbeghm405

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

How to Cite

Azam, F. 2013. Pakistan, migration 1970s to present. The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration. .

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 FEB 2013


Ranked 7th among the top countries of emigration and 13th among the top immigration countries by the World Bank in 2010, Pakistan is a leading migration country in the world; in terms of incoming cash remittances Pakistan is ranked 11th (World Bank 2011). Labor migration occupies a central place in Pakistan's economy as it is one of the main sources of absorbing the country's fast-growing labor force and generating badly needed foreign exchange in the form of workers' remittances. Migration into the country consists mainly of Bangladeshi and Burmese nationals, who are there mainly in an “illegal” capacity, while a large number of Afghan nationals are also present, who are essentially regarded as refugees by Pakistan government (Azam 2009).


  • poverty;
  • ethnic conflict;
  • labor;
  • labor supply;
  • transnationalism