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Phoenician and Carthaginian migrations

Migration A–Z


  1. Claudia Sagona

Published Online: 4 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781444351071.wbeghm413

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

How to Cite

Sagona, C. 2013. Phoenician and Carthaginian migrations. The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration. .

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 FEB 2013


After the economic disruption that impacted on the lands of the Mediterranean at the end of the Bronze Age (c.1200 bce), the indigenous societies of Canaan along the Levantine coast gradually rose to importance. Several city-states, among them Tyre, Sidon, Arwad, and Sarepta, grew wealthy through the mercantile interests of their people and the lively economic competition they generated (Markoe 2000: 257–282). Though each was independent, it was the ancient Greeks who coined the collective name, Phoiníke, for their combined territories and phoínikes for its people – the Phoenicians in modern literature. Over the course of a millennium, the Phoenicians achieved significant economic standing in the Near East, ultimately turning to the coastal regions of the greater Mediterranean for commercial expansion and settlement, a process that unfolded through a series of human migrations. As a modern field of investigation, it is made complex by the considerable areas involved and the gamut of languages in which such research is published. Investigations are further complicated by numerous international borders, some fraught with ongoing political tensions; it is still true to say that we know more about the Phoenicians in the west than we do of their homeland city states in Lebanon and Syria.


  • archaeology;
  • empire;
  • colonialism;
  • war;
  • cultural diversity;
  • cross-cultural;
  • antiquity