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Migration A–Z


  1. William H. Swatos, Jr.

Published Online: 4 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781444351071.wbeghm533

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

How to Cite

Swatos,, W. H. 2013. Tourism. The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration. .

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 FEB 2013


Unlike pilgrimage, whose origins may well be prehistoric inasmuch as all of the historical religions have pilgrimage experiences or events occuring almost immediately upon their introduction, the origins of tourism can be quite precisely dated to the beginning of the 17th century ce with the publication of Fines Morison's Itinerary, which was complied in the late 16th century and published in 1618, associated with what came to be known as the European Grand Tour (see Tomasi 2002). Morison's work was essentially secular and in this sense stood in marked contrast to the libra indulgeniarum – the guidebooks for religious pilgrims traveling to professedly holy sites in Europe or the Middle East. Although the Grand Tour was a lengthy process, quite in contrast to tours at the beginning of the 21st century, there is a continuity between the present-day and the earlier Grand Tour inasmuch as the primary function of the tour was secular – to become “worldly wise” in contrast to provincial or parochial. Regardless of the particular places involved, the underlying purpose of the tour was not to increase a person's piety or heavenly bank account, but rather to make him or her a “man or woman of the world” in the early modern era which emerged as a result of the Age of Exploration that began at the end of the 15th century.


  • borders;
  • capitalism;
  • labor;
  • transnationalism;
  • political economy