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Turkey: migration 18th–20th century

Migration A–Z


  1. Ahmet Akgündüz

Published Online: 4 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781444351071.wbeghm549

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

How to Cite

Akgündüz, A. 2013. Turkey: migration 18th–20th century. The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration. .

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 FEB 2013


For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire “Turkey.” This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation of the republic in what is the country's present-day territory. To keep consistent with contemporary historiographic usage, references to the period of the republic must thus be to “the Ottoman empire,” rather than to “Turkey.” Given how predominant forced migrations were from the beginning of the 18th century until the empire's demise, migration movements during the Ottoman period can be classified under the headings of forced or voluntary migrations, while, during the republic, the headings of external or internal migration are appropriate.


  • immigration;
  • ethnic conflict;
  • labor supply;
  • political economy;
  • regional development;
  • war