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West Indian migration to the United States, 1965 to present

Migration A–Z

W

  1. Milton Vickerman

Published Online: 4 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781444351071.wbeghm577

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

How to Cite

Vickerman, M. 2013. West Indian migration to the United States, 1965 to present. The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration. .

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 FEB 2013

Abstract

Proximity, historical, economic, and social ties have funneled West Indians into the United States for centuries, but mass migration from the region to America began in earnest only at the beginning of the 20th century. Spurred by persistently high levels of unemployment, these migrants had spread throughout the Caribbean and Central America since the 1840s. In the 20th century the United States became the latest target of opportunity for a people who had developed a culture of migration to cope with socioeconomic distress (Marshall 1982; Dodson & Diouf 2004). These “West Indians” have traditionally originated in the non-Hispanic Caribbean and settled together, apart from Hispanics, in the United States. Jamaicans, in particular, have dominated the flow to America, being surpassed by Haitian immigrants only since the 1990s (DHS 2010).

Keywords:

  • immigration;
  • race;
  • racism;
  • labor supply;
  • development