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Paradoxes of Voting

  1. Donald G. Saari

Published Online: 1 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781444367072.wbiee374

The International Encyclopedia of Ethics

How to Cite

Saari, D. G. 2013. Paradoxes of Voting. The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. .

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 1 FEB 2013


The 2000 Florida presidential elections, where Bush beat Gore even though Gore would have beaten Bush in a head-to-head comparison, combined with US Electoral College outcomes where a popular vote winner can lose, capture the uncomfortable reality that election outcomes can reflect the choice of a voting rule rather than voter preferences. This concern is crucial because “winners” affect our future. “Voting paradoxes” prove that the problem is much worse than commonly believed.


  • democracy;
  • legal and political;
  • politics