5. The Shaping of the Global Protected Area Estate

  1. Richard J. Ladle2,3 and
  2. Robert J. Whittaker2
  1. Paul Jepson2,
  2. Robert J. Whittaker2 and
  3. Sara A. Lourie1

Published Online: 7 APR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444390001.ch5

Conservation Biogeography

Conservation Biogeography

How to Cite

Jepson, P., Whittaker, R. J. and Lourie, S. A. (2011) The Shaping of the Global Protected Area Estate, in Conservation Biogeography (eds R. J. Ladle and R. J. Whittaker), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444390001.ch5

Editor Information

  1. 2

    School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

  2. 3

    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Viçosa, Brazil

Author Information

  1. 1

    Redpath Museum, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

  2. 2

    School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 7 APR 2011
  2. Published Print: 18 FEB 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781444335040

Online ISBN: 9781444390001



  • shaping of global protected area estate;
  • protected areas, land or sea - conserving and protecting nature, valued by society, groups or individuals;
  • degree of protection, to sites - protection, not from legal designation;
  • simple typology of protected area planning approaches - core character of frameworks, zonal or azonal;
  • high-profile macro-scale planning schemes - spatial divisions of seascapes or landscapes;
  • simple spatial (geographical) classification - of protected area planning approaches;
  • High Conservation Value approach, and market forces, NGO pressure, new policies and regulation - natural habitat protection;
  • spatial unit hierarchy, conservation assessment of Indo-Pacific - in WWF ecoregions framework;
  • marine protected areas, declining indices - mean trophic level 1998, and loss of top predators;
  • Marine protected areas (MPAs) - place-based conservation in the sea, a conservation tool


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Origins

  • Typology of frameworks

  • Terrestrial protected area schemes

  • Marine protected areas

  • Current trends and future directions

  • For discussion

  • Suggested reading