9. Biological Invasions and the Homogenization of Faunas and Floras

  1. Richard J. Ladle4,5 and
  2. Robert J. Whittaker4
  1. Julian D. Olden1,
  2. Julie L. Lockwood2 and
  3. Catherine L. Parr3

Published Online: 7 APR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444390001.ch9

Conservation Biogeography

Conservation Biogeography

How to Cite

Olden, J. D., Lockwood, J. L. and Parr, C. L. (2011) Biological Invasions and the Homogenization of Faunas and Floras, in Conservation Biogeography (eds R. J. Ladle and R. J. Whittaker), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444390001.ch9

Editor Information

  1. 4

    School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

  2. 5

    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Viçosa, Brazil

Author Information

  1. 1

    School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, USA

  2. 2

    Ecology, Evolution, and Natural Resources, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA

  3. 3

    Environmental Change Institute, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 7 APR 2011
  2. Published Print: 18 FEB 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781444335040

Online ISBN: 9781444390001



  • biological invasions - and fauna and flora homogenization;
  • biogeography of species invasions - shifting geographical ranges, biological and physical forces;
  • human-assisted versus prehistoric invasions - non-native species dispersal, differing from natural dispersal events;
  • human imprint on modern day species dispersal patterns;
  • ship traffic, marine and estuarine systems - dominant invasion pathway, the ballast water of commercial ships;
  • biotic homogenization - species diversity changes, invasion of non-native species into areas of rare, unique native species;
  • biotic homogenization, overarching process - loss of taxonomic, genetic or functional distinctiveness over time;
  • genetic homogenization, reduction in genetic variability - within species;
  • biotic homogenization patterns;
  • biotic homogenization, modern biodiversity crisis - ecological, evolutionary and social implications


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • The biogeography of species invasions

  • Biotic homogenization

  • Patterns of biotic homogenization

  • Environmental and human drivers of biotic homogenization

  • Biotic homogenization and conservation

  • Novel assemblages

  • For discussion

  • Suggested reading