10. Analysis of Variance and the F-Distribution

  1. Todd L. VanPool and
  2. Robert D. Leonard

Published Online: 20 APR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444390155.ch10

Quantitative Analysis in Archaeology

Quantitative Analysis in Archaeology

How to Cite

VanPool, T. L. and Leonard, R. D. (2010) Analysis of Variance and the F-Distribution, in Quantitative Analysis in Archaeology, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444390155.ch10

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 APR 2011
  2. Published Print: 22 NOV 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405189514

Online ISBN: 9781444390155



  • analysis of variance and F-distribution;
  • ANOVA, built on F-distribution - useful in variety of contexts;
  • ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA), easier robust alternative - ANOVA, one of the most powerful tools in statistician's toolkit;
  • variance within groups, sum of squares - calculated within groups;
  • distribution of means - variance among means exceeding variance within means;
  • calculating actual ANOVA comparison - easy, statistical analysis relying on precise and straightforward notation;
  • shape of F-distribution changes - and degrees of freedom;
  • Model I ANOVA - analysis of treatment effects;
  • Model I and Model II ANOVA - utility and differences between Model I and Model II ANOVA in sharp relief;
  • ANOVA calculation procedure


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Model II ANOVA: Identifying the Impacts of Random Effects

  • Model I ANOVA: The Analysis of Treatment Effects

  • A Final Summary of Model I and Model II ANOVA

  • ANOVA Calculation Procedure

  • Identifying the Sources of Significant Variation in Model I and Model II ANOVA

  • Comparing Variances