8. Hypothesis Testing II: Confidence Limits, the t-Distribution, and One-Tailed Tests

  1. Todd L. VanPool and
  2. Robert D. Leonard

Published Online: 20 APR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444390155.ch8

Quantitative Analysis in Archaeology

Quantitative Analysis in Archaeology

How to Cite

VanPool, T. L. and Leonard, R. D. (2010) Hypothesis Testing II: Confidence Limits, the t-Distribution, and One-Tailed Tests, in Quantitative Analysis in Archaeology, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444390155.ch8

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 APR 2011
  2. Published Print: 22 NOV 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405189514

Online ISBN: 9781444390155



  • hypothesis testing II, confidence limits, t-distribution and one-tailed tests;
  • evaluating a null hypothesis - calculating specific probability, comparing to alpha value;
  • single set of calculations - than of calculating 200 Z-scores;
  • confidence intervals, working - by identifying real-world values, with critical values;
  • confidence limits and critical region - of Thomomys bottae alveolar length distribution;
  • distribution of mean maximum flake lengths - 15 samples of three flakes;
  • standard error, sample distribution means - calculating variance and standard deviation in addition to grand mean;
  • central limit theorem, evaluate hypotheses - using standard error and standardized normal distribution;
  • statistical inference and confidence limits;
  • hypothesis testing - using t-distribution


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Standard Error

  • Comparing Sample Means to µ

  • Statistical Inference and Confidence Limits

  • The t-Distribution

  • Hypothesis Testing Using the t-Distribution

  • Testing One-Tailed Null Hypotheses