4. Learning in the Limit: The Gold Paradigm

  1. Alexander Clark and
  2. Shalom Lappin

Published Online: 21 MAR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444390568.ch4

Linguistic Nativism and the Poverty of the Stimulus

Linguistic Nativism and the Poverty of the Stimulus

How to Cite

Clark, A. and Lappin, S. (2011) Learning in the Limit: The Gold Paradigm, in Linguistic Nativism and the Poverty of the Stimulus, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444390568.ch4

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 21 MAR 2011
  2. Published Print: 7 JAN 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405187848

Online ISBN: 9781444390568



  • learning in the limit, the gold paradigm - problem of finding, appropriate mathematical framework characterizing learnability;
  • formal, mathematical theory of learning;
  • determining, whether there are mathematical or computational reasons - for thinking that learning natural language, is a hard task;
  • formal models of language acquisition - model, that language can be learned or the learnability condition;
  • basis of modern cognitive science, insight that cognition - fruitfully modeled as a set of computational procedures;
  • mathematical models of learnability - paradigms, as Machine Learning, Computational Learning Theory, Algorithmic Learning Theory, or Statistical Learning Theory;
  • Gold Paradigm of learnability - linguists and cognitive scientists, citing Gold's paper;
  • Gold's paper, best known for negative results - derived in the learning from positive data model;
  • critique of the positive-evidence-only APS in IIL;
  • Gold's paradigm(s), consider its (their) implications - for linguistic nativism


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Formal Models of Language Acquisition

  • Mathematical Models of Learnability

  • The Gold Paradigm of Learnability

  • Critique of the Positive-Evidence-Only APS in IIL

  • Proper Positive Results

  • Variants of the Gold Model

  • Implications of Gold's Results for Linguistic Nativism

  • Summary and Conclusions