12. Explaining Differences in Opinion Expression

Direction Matters

  1. Jolanda Jetten Professor of Social Psychology and
  2. Matthew J. Hornsey Associate Professor Associate Dean (Research)
  1. Kimberly Rios Morrison Assistant Professor of Social Psychology1 and
  2. Dale T. Miller Professor2

Published Online: 8 MAY 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781444390841.ch12

Rebels in Groups: Dissent, Deviance, Difference and Defiance

Rebels in Groups: Dissent, Deviance, Difference and Defiance

How to Cite

Rios Morrison, K. and Miller, D. T. (2010) Explaining Differences in Opinion Expression, in Rebels in Groups: Dissent, Deviance, Difference and Defiance (eds J. Jetten and M. J. Hornsey), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444390841.ch12

Editor Information

  1. University of Queensland, Australia

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Chicago, USA

  2. 2

    Stanford University, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 8 MAY 2012
  2. Published Print: 17 DEC 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405196857

Online ISBN: 9781444390841



  • differences in opinion expression - direction matters;
  • expressing minority opinions, a difficult task - like the United States and Western Europe;
  • spiral of silence theory - individuals' reticence, expressing minority viewpoints stemming from a fear of social isolation;
  • group norms and opinion expression;
  • descriptive norms, attitudes and behaviours - group members actually adopting;
  • deviating from descriptive norms – direction, inconsistent with prescriptive norm;
  • social norms, and opinions and attitudes - not just behaviours;
  • Stanford Labor Action Coalition (SLAC);
  • superior conformity and norm misperception - not the only two determinants of deviant opinion expression;
  • descriptive norm deviants' - capacity, deviants in exerting social influence within group


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Group Norms and Opinion Expression

  • Reasons for Descriptive Norm Deviants' Comfort

  • Implications and Future Directions

  • Conclusion

  • References