Sixteen. Land, Labor, Production, and Trade: Nineteenth-century Economic and Social Patterns

  1. Thomas H. Holloway Professor of History President Executive Secretary of CLAH
  1. Aldo A. Lauria-Santiago Associate Professor

Published Online: 21 MAR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444391633.ch16

A Companion to Latin American History

A Companion to Latin American History

How to Cite

Lauria-Santiago, A. A. (2010) Land, Labor, Production, and Trade: Nineteenth-century Economic and Social Patterns, in A Companion to Latin American History (ed T. H. Holloway), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444391633.ch16

Editor Information

  1. University of California at Davis, USA

Author Information

  1. Rutgers University, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 21 MAR 2011
  2. Published Print: 29 NOV 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405131612

Online ISBN: 9781444391633



  • land, labor, production, and trade - nineteenth-century economic and social patterns;
  • colonial legacies - question of Latin America's colonial legacies;
  • Latin America - “falling behind” the economies of the north Atlantic countries;
  • regional commercial agriculture - in the 1860s;
  • Peru's coastal sugar plantations - socially distant from Peruvian highland peasants;
  • community-based land tenure, haciendas and agriculture - in El Salvador, 1820s–1880s;
  • El Salvador, important materials - study of peasant and rural social structure;
  • Indigo, rich dark-blue dye - in textile production in Europe and the Americas, country's largest export product;
  • peasant economy and society - and peasant commercial agriculture;
  • demographic expansion and new market opportunities - occupation of land across Latin America's internal frontiers


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Colonial Legacies

  • Falling Behind

  • Regional Commercial Agriculture to the 1860s

  • Case Study: Community-based Land Tenure, Haciendas, and Agriculture in El Salvador, 1820s–1880s

  • Peasant Society and Economy

  • Case Study: Highland Andean Peasant communities, 1800–1870s

  • The Occupation, Ownership, and Utilization of Land

  • Case Study: The Privatization of Communal Lands in Papantla, Mexico, 1880s–1890s

  • Labor

  • Late Nineteenth-century Export Booms

  • Case Study: Coffee in Brazil, Mexico, and Central America

  • bibliography