9. Introduction to Routine Blood Tests, Normal Values and Relevance to Clinical Practice

  1. Sarah Phillips2,
  2. Mary Collins3 and
  3. Lisa Dougherty OBE4
  1. Andrea Blay

Published Online: 23 MAR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444393231.ch9

Venepuncture and Cannulation

Venepuncture and Cannulation

How to Cite

Blay, A. (2011) Introduction to Routine Blood Tests, Normal Values and Relevance to Clinical Practice, in Venepuncture and Cannulation (eds S. Phillips, M. Collins and L. Dougherty OBE), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444393231.ch9

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Vein Train Ltd, London, UK

  2. 3

    Imperial College, Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK

  3. 4

    The Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

Author Information

  1. Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 23 MAR 2011
  2. Published Print: 15 APR 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405148603

Online ISBN: 9781444393231



  • routine blood tests - normal values and relevance to clinical practice;
  • blood testing, fundamental in diagnostic process - information used in clinical decisions and treatments;
  • blood grouping - a patient's blood group and antibody status, checked;
  • prior to receiving a blood transfusion;
  • testing for toxicity and illegal substances - testing, to ascertain if illegal drugs have been ingested or injected;
  • classification and measurement of blood results;
  • United Kingdom, where blood tests - measured in Standard Units (SI) from Syst ème Internationale (SI) 1960 General Conference on Weights and Measures;
  • clinical context - hyponatraemia or low sodium levels;
  • calcium, phosphate and thyroid function - calcium in two main forms, non-ionised and ionised;
  • parathyroid hormone (PTH) - released by parathyroid glands, regulating calcium balance, reduced circulating calcium ion levels triggering release of PTH;
  • amylase test, primarily performed - pancreatitis being suspected


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Learning Outcomes

  • Introduction

  • What is the Purpose of Testing the Blood?

  • Factors that Influence Blood Results

  • Classification and Measurement of Blood Results

  • Haematology

  • Ordering Haematology Blood Tests

  • Haematology Blood Tests

  • Biochemistry

  • Biochemistry Blood Results

  • Conclusion

  • References