Expatriates: 1920s and beyond

  1. Christopher MacGowan

Published Online: 24 FEB 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781444393675.ch2

The Twentieth-Century American Fiction Handbook

The Twentieth-Century American Fiction Handbook

How to Cite

MacGowan, C. (2011) Expatriates: 1920s and beyond, in The Twentieth-Century American Fiction Handbook, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444393675.ch2

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 24 FEB 2012
  2. Published Print: 21 JAN 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405160230

Online ISBN: 9781444393675



  • expatriates, 1920s and beyond;
  • American writers, writing about Americans in Europe - long before Henry James;
  • Washington Irving's essays in The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon (1819–1820) - describing his impressions of England;
  • wealthy upper middle classes, increasing - transportation improvements, making the Atlantic crossing easier, more Americans visiting Europe;
  • travelers' accounts of their trips and impressions - including James Fenimore Cooper, Frederick Douglass, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller and Herman Melville;
  • Henry James novels, an international setting - featuring colonies of American expatriates, who for artistic, cultural, or personal reasons, lived in Europe;
  • Pound's essays, revealing James's attitude to the United States - speaking to the poet's own sense of alienation;
  • events at the end of World War I - making the 1920s, prominent decade of expatriate life in twentieth-century American fiction;
  • Cummings's autobiographical novel The Enormous Room (1922) - describing his temporary imprisonment by the French authorities in 1917;
  • Hemingway and Fitzgerald, two of the American writers - associated with the decade