10. Endocrine Disorders and Infertility

  1. Emre Seli MD3,4,5
  1. Samuel A. Pauli MD1 and
  2. Caleb B. Kallen MD, PhD2

Published Online: 8 MAR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444393958.ch10

Infertility

Infertility

How to Cite

Pauli, S. A. and Kallen, C. B. (2011) Endocrine Disorders and Infertility, in Infertility (ed E. Seli), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444393958.ch10

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

  2. 4

    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

  3. 5

    Oocyte Donation and Gestational Surrogacy Program, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

  2. 2

    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 8 MAR 2011
  2. Published Print: 23 MAR 2011

Book Series:

  1. Gynecology in Practice

Book Series Editors:

  1. Aydin Arici

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781444333534

Online ISBN: 9781444393958

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Keywords:

  • endocrine disorders and infertility;
  • pituitary disorders - affecting reproduction;
  • hyperprolactinemia, commonly diagnosed endocrine disorders - among women, benign prolactinomas or psychotropic medications;
  • causes of hyperprolactinemia;
  • imaging the brain - dedicated MRI test with gadolinium contrast, in evaluating pituitary tumors;
  • neuroimaging with MRI - prognosis and treatment options with patients;
  • microadenomas, rarely progressing in size - without displaying a increase in serum prolactin;
  • trans-sphenoidal surgery, therapeutic option - patients not tolerating medical therapy;
  • thyroid hormone production regulation - hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis, regulated through negative feedback by thyroid hormone;
  • hypothyroidism - and symptoms of hypothyroidism

Summary

The hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian (HPO) endocrine axis regulates essential processes in female reproduction. Primary or secondary disruption of the HPO axis can result in ovulatory dysfunction and menstrual irregularities, and may cause infertility. Disorders involving other endocrine organs such as the thyroid or adrenal glands can secondarily disrupt HPO axis functions and are important causes of secondary infertility. This chapter discusses common endocrine disorders of the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands and their effects on human fertility. Emphasis is placed on practical algorithms useful in the evaluation and treatment of these endocrine disorders in the clinical setting.