18. Infertility Treatment: Varying Approaches across Continents

  1. Emre Seli MD5,6,7
  1. Baris Ata MD1,2,3 and
  2. Bulent Urman MD4

Published Online: 8 MAR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444393958.ch18

Infertility

Infertility

How to Cite

Ata, B. and Urman, B. (2011) Infertility Treatment: Varying Approaches across Continents, in Infertility (ed E. Seli), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444393958.ch18

Editor Information

  1. 5

    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

  2. 6

    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

  3. 7

    Oocyte Donation and Gestational Surrogacy Program, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, McGill Reproductive Centre, Canada

  2. 2

    Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

  3. 3

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

  4. 4

    Obstetrics and Gynecology, American Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 8 MAR 2011
  2. Published Print: 23 MAR 2011

Book Series:

  1. Gynecology in Practice

Book Series Editors:

  1. Aydin Arici

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781444333534

Online ISBN: 9781444393958

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Keywords:

  • infertility treatment - varying approaches across continents;
  • surgical treatment of tubal obstruction - reversal of tubal ligation or vasectomy, rational treatments;
  • ART, most successful treatment for infertility;
  • ART, treatment option for infertility - highest pregnancy/birth rate per attempt;
  • major complications of ART - ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS);
  • out-of-pocket cost to patients - key determinant of utilization of ART services;
  • regulations, governing rights of embryo - moral status of fertilized human egg, whether considered as a human already in being;
  • gamete donation, and controversial issues - naturally categorized as oocyte donation and sperm donation;
  • ART outcome monitoring and success rates - European IVF Monitoring Programme (EIM) and SART, data on ART in Europe and the United States;
  • implementation, of standardized universal monitoring system for ART outcomes - benefitting patients, health authorities and medical professionals

Summary

Owing to generous reimbursement policies and the lower costs of treatment, the utilization of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) is higher in most European countries than in North America. European governments are not only more likely to reimburse ART treatment, but also create a more rigid regulatory environment compared to the United States. Gamete donation, surrogacy, treatment of single women and same-sex couples, embryo and gamete freezing, or even the number of embryos transferred are subject to restrictions in many European countries. Substantial differences in the collection and reporting of data on ART outcome prevent reliable direct comparisons between the two continents.