30. Psychology and Forced Migrants

  1. Paul R. Martin3,
  2. Fanny M. Cheung BA PhD4,
  3. Michael C. Knowles MCom (Qld), PhD (Edin)5,
  4. Michael Kyrios6,
  5. J. Bruce Overmier7 and
  6. José M. Prieto8
  1. Zachary Steel1 and
  2. Catherine Robina Bateman Steel2

Published Online: 20 APR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444395150.ch30

IAAP Handbook of Applied Psychology

IAAP Handbook of Applied Psychology

How to Cite

Steel, Z. and Bateman Steel, C. R. (2011) Psychology and Forced Migrants, in IAAP Handbook of Applied Psychology (eds P. R. Martin, F. M. Cheung, M. C. Knowles, M. Kyrios, J. B. Overmier and J. M. Prieto), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444395150.ch30

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Griffith University, Queensland, Australia

  2. 4

    Chinese University of Hong Kong

  3. 5

    Monash University, Melbourne, Australia

  4. 6

    Swinburne University of Technology, Australia

  5. 7

    University of Minnesota, USA

  6. 8

    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of NSW, Australia

  2. 2

    University of New South Wales, Australia

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 APR 2011
  2. Published Print: 1 APR 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405193313

Online ISBN: 9781444395150



  • psychology and forced migrants;
  • forced migration, commonly associated with extreme mental stressors;
  • violence, conflict, social and economic degradation - dislocation, loss, and instability, picture of immense vulnerability for affected persons and populations.;
  • refugees, asylum seekers and displaced populations;
  • forced migrants and mental health - early mental health research and intervention with refugees, prominence of trauma model;
  • lack of standardized diagnostic systems - at the time and a tendency to rely on hospital data and admission rates, as index of psychopathology;
  • pivotal to history of psychiatric traumatology - of which PTSD became central, mass flight of Indochinese refugees, PTSD being introduced into DSM-III;
  • convergence of mental health and human rights - rise of trauma model, at a time of increasing awareness and attention to human rights;
  • refugee determination process - cautionary note for psychologist, evidence in refugee determination process;
  • psychology and forced migrants - future directions, and the ADAPT model, Adaptation and Development after Persecution and Trauma, and not the only stress response in mass disasters’ survivors


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Refugees, Asylum Seekers, and Displaced Populations

  • Forced Migrants and Mental Health

  • Concluding Comments

  • References