7. Autonomy in Learning and Instruction

Roots, Frames, and Concepts of a Basic Issue

  1. Paul R. Martin2,
  2. Fanny M. Cheung BA PhD3,
  3. Michael C. Knowles MCom (Qld), PhD (Edin)4,
  4. Michael Kyrios5,
  5. J. Bruce Overmier6 and
  6. José M. Prieto7
  1. Peter Nenniger

Published Online: 20 APR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444395150.ch7

IAAP Handbook of Applied Psychology

IAAP Handbook of Applied Psychology

How to Cite

Nenniger, P. (2011) Autonomy in Learning and Instruction, in IAAP Handbook of Applied Psychology (eds P. R. Martin, F. M. Cheung, M. C. Knowles, M. Kyrios, J. B. Overmier and J. M. Prieto), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444395150.ch7

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Griffith University, Queensland, Australia

  2. 3

    Chinese University of Hong Kong

  3. 4

    Monash University, Melbourne, Australia

  4. 5

    Swinburne University of Technology, Australia

  5. 6

    University of Minnesota, USA

  6. 7

    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain

Author Information

  1. University of Koblenz - Landau, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 APR 2011
  2. Published Print: 1 APR 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405193313

Online ISBN: 9781444395150



  • autonomy in learning and instruction - roots, frames and concepts of a basic issue;
  • roots of independent or autonomous learning - culture and history, idea of autonomy conceived in different ways;
  • understanding of autonomy, going back - to Age of Enlightenment, primary source and legitimacy for authority, capacity to live according to causes, motives and aims;
  • frames of self-directed and self-regulated learning - specifying frames, number of exemplar conceptualizations, typically substantiating self-direction and/or self-regulation in learning;
  • concepts of self-directed learning (SDL) - towards a more inside-oriented look at the individual conditions of a person;
  • concepts of self-regulated learning - in analogy to foregoing view of concepts of self-directed learning;
  • models of self-regulated learning, situating motivational processes - at the beginning, or at the term of a learning episode, or at a critical, decisive phase;
  • actual state, desiderata and future prospects


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Roots of Independent or Autonomous Learning

  • Frames of Self-Directed and Self-Regulated Learning

  • Concepts of Self-Directed and Self-Regulated Learning

  • Actual State, Desiderata, and Future Prospects

  • References