7. Applying the Science of Learning to the Art of Teaching

  1. Debra Mashek3 and
  2. Elizabeth Yost Hammer4
  1. Diane F. Halpern1 and
  2. Clayton L. Stephenson2

Published Online: 17 MAR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444395341.ch7

Empirical Research in Teaching and Learning

Empirical Research in Teaching and Learning

How to Cite

Halpern, D. F. and Stephenson, C. L. (2011) Applying the Science of Learning to the Art of Teaching, in Empirical Research in Teaching and Learning (eds D. Mashek and E. Y. Hammer), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444395341.ch7

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Harvey Mudd College, USA

  2. 4

    Xavier University of Louisiana, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Claremont McKenna College, USA

  2. 2

    Claremont Graduate University, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 17 MAR 2011
  2. Published Print: 4 MAR 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781444337198

Online ISBN: 9781444395341



  • science of learning application - to art of teaching;
  • information, credible - consumers of information, on how to think about information;
  • critical thinking, cognitive skills and abilities - purposeful, reasoned and goal directed;
  • critical thinkers, using skills appropriately - no prompting, with conscious intent;
  • critical thinking - involving evaluation of thinking process;
  • transfer of critical thinking skills - far transfer, advanced level of critical thinking;
  • near and far transfer - types of intermediate transfer;
  • principles of learning, promoting transfer - grouped learning principles, and seven categories;
  • cognitive psychology, and recall of information - learners generating the to-be-remembered information;
  • theme of variability, in learning - of what happens in learning and long-term retention


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • What is Critical Thinking?

  • Principles of Learning that Promote Transfer

  • Vary Learning Activities

  • Conclusion and Future Directions

  • References