12. How Audiences Rewrote the Script

  1. Jane L. Chapman and
  2. Nick Nuttall

Published Online: 15 APR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444395372.ch12

Journalism Today: A Themed History

Journalism Today: A Themed History

How to Cite

Chapman, J. L. and Nuttall, N. (2011) How Audiences Rewrote the Script, in Journalism Today: A Themed History, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444395372.ch12

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2011
  2. Published Print: 5 APR 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405179539

Online ISBN: 9781444395372



  • how audiences rewrite scripts, idea of “countrymen” - a single audience, highly contested territory;
  • Democracy in America (1831), Alexis de Tocqueville - alleging that The inhabitants of the United States have, then, at present, no national literature;
  • women, ethnic minorities and “working classes” - laying claim to special treatment by society;
  • a racing certainty, rise of the sporting press - minority interests infiltrating the mainstream press;
  • Michael Oriard in his book Reading Football - drawing attention to coverage of (American) football, in the daily press of late nineteenth century;
  • most sports, with their own monthly magazines - as football's FourFourTwo and athletics' American Track and Field;
  • study of perfection, earliest magazines - devoted to women, the London-based Lady's Magazine (1770);
  • New Journalism, whether Arnold's strictures or not - inescapably bound up with notions of feminization of the press;
  • FactFile - Le Petit Journal, a tabloid-style newspaper - published in Paris between 1863 and 1944;
  • needs of the masses, ignored by established organs of communication - met by a journalism of “sensationalism”


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • FactFile: La Fronde

  • FactFile: Le Petit Journal

  • FactFile: Audience Reaction to W. T. Stead's “Maiden Tribute of Modern Babylon”