5. What we know about Peer Relations and Exclusion

  1. Melanie Killen and
  2. Adam Rutland

Published Online: 20 APR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444396317.ch5

Children and Social Exclusion: Morality, Prejudice, and Group Identity

Children and Social Exclusion: Morality, Prejudice, and Group Identity

How to Cite

Killen, M. and Rutland, A. (2011) What we know about Peer Relations and Exclusion, in Children and Social Exclusion: Morality, Prejudice, and Group Identity, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444396317.ch5

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 APR 2011
  2. Published Print: 15 APR 2011

Book Series:

  1. Understanding Children's Worlds

Book Series Editors:

  1. Judy Dunn

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405176514

Online ISBN: 9781444396317



  • peer relations and exclusion, and what we know - group dynamics, interweaving of two aspects of social development;
  • morality, reflected in children's orientations - fair, children's prejudice, bias and group identity;
  • identifying sources of exclusion - intrapersonal and interpersonal exclusion, and personality traits of individual;
  • peer nominations - how multiple profiles exist in classrooms;
  • approaches, for understanding personality and social characteristics of children - identifying vulnerable children, excluded or rejected;
  • temperament, and intrapersonal factors - receiving attention in literature;
  • negative emotionality, as behavioral profile in infancy - relatively stable in childhood;
  • social reasoning from Social Domain model – children's evaluation of exclusion, group functioning, decisions justifying exclusion on gender, race and ethnicity;
  • exclusion in friendship, and peer group exclusion contexts - multifaceted, evaluated as moral, conventional and personal;
  • criterion of “social influence” - categorization of exclusion for a girl, decision in moral, not conventional terms


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Exclusion: Social Traits and Individual Differences

  • Intragroup and Intergroup Exclusion: Ingroup/Outgroup Identity

  • Social Reasoning and Exclusion

  • Gender Exclusion in Early Childhood: Okay or Unfair?

  • Comparing Gender and Racial Exclusion: Group Goals and Qualifications

  • Interviewing Ethnic Minority and Majority Children and Adolescents about Exclusion

  • Social Reasoning about Exclusion in Adolescence: Crowds, Cliques, and Networks

  • Social Reasoning about Sexual Prejudice

  • Exclusion in Interracial Encounters: Lunch Table, Birthday Parties, and Dating

  • Gender Exclusion in the Family Context: Children's Views about Parental Expectations

  • Summary