30. Restless Legs Syndrome and Akathisia in Parkinson's Disease

  1. C. Warren Olanow MD, FRCPC3,4,5,
  2. Fabrizio Stocchi MD, PhD6 and
  3. Anthony E. Lang MD, FRCPC7,8,9
  1. Alex Iranzo MD1 and
  2. Cynthia L. Comella MD2

Published Online: 27 JUN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/9781444397970.ch30

Parkinson's Disease: Non-Motor and Non-Dopaminergic Features

Parkinson's Disease: Non-Motor and Non-Dopaminergic Features

How to Cite

Iranzo, A. and Comella, C. L. (2011) Restless Legs Syndrome and Akathisia in Parkinson's Disease, in Parkinson's Disease: Non-Motor and Non-Dopaminergic Features (eds C. W. Olanow, F. Stocchi and A. E. Lang), Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781444397970.ch30

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA

  2. 4

    Department of Neuroscience, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA

  3. 5

    Robert and John M. Bendheim Parkinson's Disease Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA

  4. 6

    Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Research Centre, Institute for Research and Medical Care, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy

  5. 7

    Division of Neurology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

  6. 8

    Parkinson's Disease Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

  7. 9

    Movement Disorder Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada

Author Information

  1. 1

    Neurology Service, Hospital Clinic and Institut d'Investigació Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain

  2. 2

    Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 27 JUN 2011
  2. Published Print: 29 JUL 2011

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405191852

Online ISBN: 9781444397970

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Keywords:

  • Parkinson's disease;
  • restless leg syndrome;
  • periodic limb movements of sleep;
  • akathisia;
  • non-motor fluctuations

Summary

Restless leg syndrome (RLS) and akathisia are two disorders manifested by a sense of restlessness that are common in Parkinson's disease and demonstrate a response to dopaminergic stimulation. These disorders, however, are clinically distinct. RLS symptoms are localized primarily to the legs, occur with a circadian pattern, and are alleviated by movement. Akathisia is a generalized sense of restlessness that does not follow a circadian pattern, has a generalized distribution with prominent axial involvement, and is not completely alleviated by activity. Both disorders may occur in the context of reduced central dopamine activity, including use of dopamine receptor antagonist and Parkinson's disease. The underlying mechanism responsible for these disorders are likely distinct, although little is understood, particularly about akathisia. This chapter reviews current understandings of these disorders and their relationship to Parkinson's disease.