Standard Article

15.2 Polymerization on Molecular Catalysts

Part 15. Polymerization Reactions

  1. Gerhard Fink*

Published Online: 15 MAR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9783527610044.hetcat0194

Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis

Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis

How to Cite

Fink, G. 2008. Polymerization on Molecular Catalysts. Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis. 15:15.2:3792–3830.

Author Information

  1. Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Mülheim-Ruhr, Germany

  1. *

    Corresponding author.

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 MAR 2008

Abstract

The sections in this article are

  • Introduction
  • History and Evolution of (Heterogeneous) Ziegler–Natta Catalysts
    • First-Generation Catalysts
    • Second-Generation Catalyst
    • Third-Generation MgCl2-Supported Catalysts
    • Fourth- and Fifth-Generation Catalysts
    • Metallocenes—Sixth-Generation Catalysts
  • Polymer Reaction Engineering
    • Production of Polyethylene
      • Suspension Polymerization Process [24, 29]
      • Phillips Particle Form Process [24, 29] (Fig. 15.2.4)
      • Gas-Phase Fluidized-Bed Process [24, 29] (Fig. 15.2.5)
    • Propylene Polymerization
      • Basell Spheripol Process [24, 29] (Fig. 15.2.6)
      • BASF Novolen Process [24, 29] (Fig. 15.2.7)
      • Unipol–Shell Fluid Bed Process [24, 29] (Fig. 15.2.8)
      • Multizone Circulating Reactor (MZCR) [29] (Fig. 15.2.9)
  • Mechanisms of Ziegler–Natta Catalysis and Polymerization
    • Fundamental Considerations
    • Early Soluble Unbridged Metallocene Catalysts in Connection with Alkylaluminum Chlorides
      • Unbridged Metallocene Catalysts in Connection with Methylaluminoxane
    • Stereorigid Bridged Chiral Metallocene Catalysts in Connection with MAO or Other Activators
    • Mechanism of Stereochemical Control
  • Supported Metallocene/MAO Catalysts and Other Heterogenized Catalysts
    • Silica Gel as Supporting Material
    • Supporting Methods and Procedures
    • Further Supporting Materials and Procedures
      • Polystyrene
      • Hybrid Multicomponent Catalyst Systems
      • Self-Immobilization
    • Polymerization Kinetics and Polymer Particle Growth
    • Mathematical Modeling and Fragmentation Processes
    • Video Microscopy
  • Outlook—Future Trends [25, 28]

Keywords:

  • polymerization;
  • molecular catalysts;
  • polymerization catalysts;
  • Ziegler–Natta catalysts;
  • olefins;
  • polyolefins;
  • polyethylene;
  • polypropylene